Cancer chemo preventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.
Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals.
Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples.
Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004).
The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in ‘in vitro’ studies.
These include anti mutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, anti proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity.
Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.
Apples Juice – Can help as a blood purifier
rich in potassium, sodium, vitamin A, vitamin G, abundant source of vitamins A, C, B1, Niacin and panthothenic acid —
The large amount of phosphorus contained in apples makes them valuable as brain and nerve food, especially in cases of nervous exhaustion. They help ‘brain’ workers to stay clear and relaxed. Vitamin C is found in the skin of the apple.
Apples Juice – May help Alzheimer’s
For those who think that apple juice is a kid’s drink, think again. apples and apple juice may be among the best foods that baby boomers and senior citizens could add to their diet, according to new research that demonstrates how apple products can help boost brain function similar to medication.
Animal research from the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) indicates that apple juice consumption may actually increase the production in the brain of the essential neurotransmitter acetylcholine, resulting in improved memory. Neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine are chemicals released from nerve cells that transmit messages to other nerve cells. Such communication between nerve cells is vital for good health, not just in the brain, but throughout the body.
“We anticipate that the day may come when foods like apples, apple juice and other apple products are recommended along with the most popular Alzheimer’s medications,” says Thomas Shea, Ph.D., director of the UML Center for Cellular Neurobiology and Neurodegeneration Research.
The study will be published in the August issue of the international Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. The role of acetylcholine in the brain is not a new area of research. Alzheimer’s medication studies start with the premise that increasing the amount of acetylcholine in the brain can help to slow mental decline in people with Alzheimer’s disease. Testing a similar hypothesis, the UML research team found that having animals consume antioxidant-rich apple juice had a comparable and beneficial effect.
Reference : Thomas Shea, Ph.D., director of the UML Center for Cellular Neurobiology and Neurode-generation Research.